Typography

In computer graphics and video images, the pixel resolution is the number or pixels in the display. Resolution describes the detail an imageholds. The term applies equally to digital images, film images, and other types of images.  

Texture resolutions must be in what is known as a Power of Two. This is the number of “blocks” or pixels, Scales up (and down) nicely in binary calculation like 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64.

The more common texture resolutions are as follows: 

256*256=256 kb

512*512=1 MB

1024*512=2 MB

1024*1024= 4 MB

2048*1024=8 MB

2048*2048=16 MB

4096*4096 =64 MB 

Films require high resolution textures and its counting is done in 1k, 2k, 3k, and 4k. 

1024*1024= 1 K

2048*1024=2 K

2048*2048=3 K

4096*4096 =4 K

Games require low resolution textures because of its real-time processing of render engine. Like 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 pixels.

Compositing also require high resolution images as matte painting, BGs and high color quality data.

Print requires high resolution images starting form 150 dot per inch resolution.

Apart from these pixel calculations you can also define resolution of image depending on hardware medium you are using. For example if Film is transferring to DI, it produce blur whereas if transfer is done from Beta Tape to DI then no problem occurs. This is a list of modern-day, digital-type measurements (and traditional, analog horizontal resolutions) for various media. The list only includes popular formats, not rare formats, and all values are approximate (rounded to the nearest 10), since the actual quality can vary machine-to-machine or tape-to-tape. For ease-of-comparison, all values are for the NTSC system. (For PAL systems, replace 480 with 576

  • 350×240 (260 lines): Video CD
  • 330×480 (250 lines): Umatic, Betamax, VHS, Video8
  • 400×480 (300 lines): Super Betamax, Betacam (pro)
  • 440×480 (330 lines): analog broadcast
  • 560×480 (420 lines): LaserDisc, Super VHS, Hi8
  • 670×480 (500 lines): Enhanced Definition Betamax
  • Digital:

 10,000×7000 (7000 lines): IMAX, IMAX HD, OMNIMAX

  • 720×480 (520 lines): D-VHS, DVD, miniDV, Digital8, Digital Betacam (pro)
  • 720×480 (400 lines): Widescreen DVD (anamorphic)
  • 1280×720 (720 lines): D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDV (miniDV)
  • 1440×1080 (810 lines): HDV (miniDV)
  • 1920×1080 (1080 lines): D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDCAM SR (pro)

Film: 

  • 35 mm film
  • 35 mm original camera negative motion picture film can resolve up to 6,000 lines.
  • 35 mm projection positive motion picture film has about 2,000 lines which results from the analog printing from the camera negative of an interpositive, and possibly an internegative, then a projection positive.
  • Sequences from newer films are scanned at 2,000, 4,000 or even 8,000 columns (line measured the other directions), called 2K, 4K and 8K, for quality visual-effects editing on computers.


Rendering for film and HDTV need high-resolution textures

High Definition usually refers to 720 or more lines of video format resolution displayed in a horizontal fashion from top to bottom.  

Video Format

Resolution
(w*H)

Pixels

Aspect Ratio
(X*Y)

Description

 

  

 

 

1024*768 XGA

 

 

786,432

 

 

16:9  4:3

 

 

PC RESOLUTION, PLASMA DISPLAYS with non-square pixels

 

 

720p
1280*720

 

 

 

1280*720

 

 

921,600

 

 

16:9    1:1

PC Resolution on WXGA, 750 line video, Digital Television, DLP and LCOS Projection HDTV displays

 

 

 

 

1366*768

 

1,049,088

 

683:38(approx
16:9)

 

 

Standard HDTV Displays, LCD HDTV Displays.

Common Native resolution
used in HD Ready LCD TV

 

1080i

1920*1080

 

 

1280*1080

 

1,382,400

 

32:27(approx 3:2 16:9)

 

Non Standardized “HD Ready”, TV HDTV with non square pixels

1080p
1920*1080

1920*1080

2,073,600

16:9 1:1

A standardized HDTV Displays, High-end LCD and Plasma HDTV Displays. Used for 1125-Line Video

The best resolution of a texture is the double size of the corresponding image. Or to be more precise: the final size of the corresponding object in the final image, for example texture a Box that will have a size of 100×100 pixels in a 1000×1000 pixels rendering, your texture should have a resolution of around 200×200 pixels. Anything below this level will cause a blur effect; anything above it will be useless at one point since the details are not “spotted” anymore by the render engine. 


 

Importance of Pixel aspect Ratio for Texture.

Most digital imaging systems describe an image as a grid of very small but nonetheless square pixels. However, some imaging systems, especially those which must maintain compatibility with Standard-definition television motion pictures, define an image as a grid of rectangular pixels in which the width of the pixel is slightly different from that of its height. Pixel Aspect Ratio describes this difference.

Use of Pixel Aspect Ratio mostly involves pictures pertaining to standard-definition television and some other exceptional cases. Most other imaging systems, including those which comply with SMPTE standards and practices, use square pixels.

Pixel aspect ratio 1:1

Pixel aspect ratio 2:1

 Any rendering of geometry-based graphics to an image, including text, must take the pixel aspect ratio into account; otherwise it will come out "stretched" or "squished" and blurred due to video quality with non-square pixels. So in the early days of CG, it was important to create a standard that would set the way forward.

So keeping within the 0>1 ratio makes everything a lot easier, as well as keeping texture map dimension either square or dimension to power of 2. E.g.  1024 x 512, 512 x 512, 512 x 256, etc. This can even apply to something like color depth as well. 

Resolution vs. Time

While doing rendering map resolution has to be noticed. If map resolution is very high, then rendering take lot of time.  If map resolution is more 4k or 6k, then rendering will take more time. To save rendering time, many times low resolution maps are textured on distance objects in scene.  Middle object medium resolution Texture & camera near objects are textured with high resolution maps. While rendering sometimes jitter is seen, that time texture resolution has to be check properly, wherever jitter is seen that place sharpness should be reduce. 

Unwrapping technique for Texturing 

Unwrapping technique of texturing helps to avoid problems of stretching or blurring of textures but in this case also we have to be careful that texture or map should be of appropriate resolution and size.  If unwrap is not proper then texture can look stretched though texture is of high resolution.  To avoid stretch, uvs has to be opened equally.  Sometimes if model is not proper, & if model loops are not proper, then also texture can be stretched. During Skinning process of model if skinning is not proper then also texture can be stretched. All this has to be noticed while doing texture. 

Painting Textures

These days there are number of software’s (like ZBrush, Deep Paint3D) helps to paint 3D Objects surface directly. Later this surface is exported as unwrapped texture map with uvs.  Advantage of these software’s are that they give freedom to artist to paint, shade at any resolution level and export texture without stretch, blur or distortion. 

Procedural Maps 

A procedural map is generated by a mathematical algorithm. Consequently, the types of controls you find for a procedural map vary depending on the capabilities of the procedure. A procedural map can be generated in either two or three dimensions. You can also nest texture or procedural maps within another procedural map to add depth and complexity to the material. 

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.